Marine navigation



Dear navigator and sailor I hope, that next chapters of my web site will help you to do the right position on the map during the sea voyage. I hope that you will learn to count and to quote ships head for steersman and later to put that information in a log-book. However remember, that very knowledge a navigation isn't everything...

"(...) The navigation consists on safe leading the yacht of the around one place into second , what comes down to determining one's place on water, answering a question 'where we are'. However a role of the map or GPS are being overrated unjustly in this respect, whether generally of estimating the position. It is possible to know one's coordinates, well are shown on the screen, but if only to plot them on a map are a bit of a time needed. And need the time more to making oneself aware still how it has itself to our real situation at sea. This time can be being enough to driving onto the shoal or laying itself wide open up to the ship swimming up. Therefore keeping the vigilance aboard is more important because a common sense rather than a profound knowledge can before the disaster sometimes save us navigational.

It's good to remember, that invisible the ship can behind the horizon be found at our side within fifteen minutes, and big sail which the ship approaching from the leeward is covering for us effectively and the time for spotting the ship is still more shortening. As well automated motor yachts have the paucity of the crew more and more and the probability of the inattention is increasing from both sides. (...)"

Fragment of the article 'Nawigacja pi razy oko' Kapitan K.Baranowski
Żagle 4/2004

A marine navigation is a branch of the knowledge taking care of safe carrying out the yacht of around one place to second. The navigation is also giving an answer to the question where our yacht is found at that particular moment (position) and how to swim avoiding all dangers on the way in order to attain the destination in the end. So the problem there with which is a navigation comes down to solving two objectives this way: of locating the yacht and marking the real course out.

On account of methods of locating the yacht, it is possible to share the navigation on:

  • Satellite navigation - where the GPS receiver which is communicating with 24 artificial satellites going land around with the help of radio waves is being used. The GPS receiver is showing geographic coordinates systematically.
  • Coastal navigation - taken in the range of the visibility of the land where determining geographic coordinates relies on observation of objects on the land. Practicing this method nautical charts are being used, lists of lights and beacons.
  • Dead reckoning - determining moved closer the position of the yacht where is a base for acquaintance of its last measured title (observed position) and of direction (of course) and speeds of the yacht (Mm).
  • Pilot navigation - used mainly at attempts at ports where marking out the road of the yacht consists in the identification of passed buoys.
  • Celestial navigation - determining geographic coordinates consists in observation of putting celestial objects. Taken mainly in oceanic sailing.

Outside above ways of locating the yacht at sea, a radio navigation and a radar and met rarely in sailing inert navigation still exist.

Outlining the safe road of the yacht consists above all in determining the appropriate rate. Knowing the accurate item, with the help of maps, it is possible and the like to outline lists of lights, navigational boards appropriate and safe run of the yacht.

Also a branch is connected with outlining the safe road of the yacht closely for the meteorology.

The course is divided in chapters for the navigation far:


 Sailing Maritime Navigation - Advanced course the marine navigation in sailing
Marine mavigationTasks and testing exercises
 Chapter 1  GPS in marine navigation
 Chapter 2  Basic geographical notions
 Chapter 3  Units of measures in navigation
 Chapter 4  Nautical chart
 Chapter 5  Marine Compass and Deviation
 Chapter 6  Log
 Chapter 7  Courses
 Chapter 8  True and magnetic bearings
 Chapter 9  Coordinates and Lines of position
 Chapter 10  Observed position - examples
 Chapter 11  Position observed from two horizontal  angles
 Chapter 12  The Four Point Bearing, Doubling the  angle on the bow
 Chapter 13  Fan of bearings - that is averaged but  accurate KDd
 Chapter 14  Tides and navigation
 Chapter 15  Currents and navigation
 Chapter 16  Log-book
 Testing tasks:  magnetic variation
 Testing tasks:  converting of routes
 Testing tasks:  converting of bearings
 Exercise:  Sidelights

 Mathematics: Distance to the horizon
 IALA System


The text is in the preliminary translation. I am apologizing for mistakes in the text and I am asking for understanding.




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